Internet Marketing Tips and Quips for Aspiring Marketers
Exam time kills my blogging mojo... Apologies I will return in full force very soon!

Cool Tool- HubSpot's Press Release Grader

I know my fellow PR peers are going to love this one.

How it Works:

You enter the content of your press release into HubSpot's Press Release Grader, tell them the name of your company and the company website. The tool then evaluates the press release based upon various important factors identified by "public relations experts" such as the language level of the content and how well the press release performs for SEO. Much like the company's other very useful (and free) tool,  Website Grader, the Press Release Grader generates a nicely formatted report of the release's evaluation.

As PR people we should be absolutely rejoicing at the discovery of such a tool. I mean come on PR peeps we have been willing to kill to get access to metrics like this! Especially for all the PR interns out there, start using this tool for the releases you have created through coursework and intern experience and add these reports to the ol' portfolio. Nothing beats a tool that clearly shows off the value of your work.





Steve Jobs Tweet of the Day



@ceoSteveJobs: "Once you go Mac, you can't go back."

Meet Seth Priebatsch- Creator of SCVNGR & One of the Coolest 21 Year Olds Around

video
If you don't already know, Seth Priebatsch is quite possibly one of the most successful 21 year olds Boston has to offer. In a town filled with college bars and frat parties, Seth runs one of the most highly anticipated new social networking platforms to date- SCVNGR. Before this success however, Seth took a "leave-of-absence" a.k.a. dropped out of Princeton to pursue his dream of creating "a game layer on top of the world." Now backed by Google venture capitol, SCVNGR continues to pick up momentum amongst users and cliental. Check out this video of Seth as he explains the uses of his "game layer" innovation.







What's Your Internet Klout?



Klout is a fairly new tool that  uses its own specially-designed algorithm to provide you with a "measurement of your overall online influence." While it is still being highly debated whether Klout's score provides a real value beyond just bragging rights, the tool could be used to potentially identify thought leaders on the Internet a.k.a. really good stuff for companies.

While I am sure many of you seasoned social media veterans are exclaiming "But there already are many of those types of tools you dummy!" try to hear me out for now at least. The Klout algorithm relies on 35 different variables extracted from Facebook and Twitter in order to measure a person's True Reach, Amplification Probability and Network Score. An individual's Klout score is based on a scale of 0-100 and is "highly correlated to clicks, comments and retweets" related to the content they produce.

What is interesting about the Klout algorithm is that it is intuitive enough to deduce how many "active" followers and friends a person actually has, rather than merely calulating the often baseless numbers that appear on a person's profile. If a person has 500 Twitter followers but only actively engages with 200 of them, this is taken into account. This element which seems to imperative for an accurate score is a unique function in this type of measuring tool.

My advice is to keep your eye on Klout as the debate about its value continues on. But in the mean time why not check out what your Klout score would be and get a fun badge just for kicks.

Jay-Z & Bing Team Up and Make Sweet Marketing Music




In order to promote Jay-Z's recently released book, Decoded, the rapper teamed up with Bing and creative agency, Droga5, in a marketing effort that created quite a stir in several major cities. 


Content from the book's 300 pages was placed on various "secret pages" in locations throughout cities like New York (the rapper's hometown) and London. The goal of the month-long campaign was to engage fans in a real-life treasure hunt. Jay-Z's fans, who Bing researchers found to be heavy search engine users, were eager participants in the online/offline effort.


Once fans spotted the secret pages in such places as billboards and even at the bottom of swimming pools, they were to log on to Bing.com/Jay-Z  to "decode" the messages they found. As more pages were found, the Bing website allowed Jay-Z fans to work together and share clues about where the next "secret page" could be spotted. Every fan who participated in the "decoding" was automatically entered to win a copy of the specific page they found signed by the rapper himself. 


Great idea. Great Pairing. Jay-Z has tons and tons and tons (ok you get it) of fans. Naturally the book was going to be fairly successful based on that alone. But throw in an impressive marketing campaign to top it off and BAM- not only did the book get listed on Oprah's Book Club and on the NYT Best Seller List, but Bing also boosted its relationship with new and existing users.


The "Decoded" scheme seems to have unlocked several very important take-aways for future marketing campaigns, as well. Primarily, it is going to become increasingly important for campaigns to engage consumers through an interactive and incentivized strategy that cohesively links offline participation with online participation. Secondly, fellow marketers should take note of the power and reach of search engines and how a participation with one could produce a very successful and mutually beneficial relationship.

Cool Tool - Google AdWords Keyword Tool

If you manage an AdWords account or are just in need of an effective way to research good keywords definitely check out the Google AdWords Keyword Tool. Enter the search term you are researching and the tool will give you related search terms, the competition rate for each term, the global and local monthly search volume of the word, and the local trending of the term. For those of us in charge of AdWords accounts, using this tool will allow you to easily identify which keywords in a campaign will be most effective (and worth company $$) and which keywords can be done without. Sweet!

HTML for Marketers 101- Very Simple SEO Basics

I often get questions from friends and peers about how to easily boost a site's search engine optimization and basic HTML strategies are the first thing that come to my mind.


Without getting all complicated, start with title and meta tags. Not sure what these are? Click on the View tab in your browser and select the View Source option.  The image below is a screen shot of the title and meta tags for target.com:





Here is what this HTML looks like in Google's search results:
















Title tags are what appear at the top of a search results so it is important that they encompass the most strategic keywords to describe your site. The better the terms in your HTML title tag match to the key terms your target audience searches for the better the likelihood that they will find your site in their search results.
• It is important to remember to limit the length of title tags to 65 characters or less. This is the amount of room that search engines will  allot for a single title so its best to keep it concise. (different search engines vary on exactly how many characters but I stick to 60 to keep it safe when possible.
Meta Tags should be created for every unique page on a website. This peice of HTML helps search engine crawlers index your site's information more easily, making your site available to potential visitors faster (or thats the idea anyway). Meta descriptions enclose a short, keyword rich summary of what appears on a particular page. This description appears in search results directly beneath the Title Tag (described above). 
• The general rule of thumb is to keep meta tags 160 characters or less, but there doesn't seem to be much proof that a longer meta will actually hurt a page's SEO.
Often, dense websites do not contain meta descriptions for every single page because it can be tedious. 
When no HTML tag is provided, search engines will crawl a page and basically throw in the most frequent terms from its content. Much debate about the pros and cons of this have been discussed in great detail in the marketing world-- seems that the best approach is a trial and error. If a page is not performing as well as expected, try optimizing its title tags and meta tags with better keywords.

For more on HTML rules for better SEO check out Internet Guru Rand Fishkin's post. I always look to his blog for professional tips.


A Steve Jobs Tweet of the Day



@ceoSteveJobs: "I may know exactly what millions of people want every day, but when it comes to Laurene's birthday, I don't have a clue."

What is Digital Death? Celebs Are Signing-Off To Raise Awareness




If your Lady Gaga twitter feed isn't its usual self on November 30th, don't worry your Twitter account is not malfunctioning.

As part of a new campaign called Digital Life Sacrifice, celebs like Gaga, Alicia Keys, J. Timberlake and many more, will be signing off of their social media pages on behalf of World AIDS Day. The "Digital Death" of these celebrities on Facebook and Twitter aims to bring attention to the millions of unheard voices dying from AIDs around the world. The participating celebrities will remain logged-off of their accounts from the 30th until the Keep A Child Alive charity has raised $1 million in donations.

Video clips depicting each of the celebs laying in a coffin will be the last post on their pages until the charity meets its goals. Sounds pretty jarring but I guess that is the point. Its kind of sad that it takes a "digital death" of a celebrity on Twitter to get people's attention on such a serious global issue...but nevertheless it is always good to see the power of social media being reinvented for the betterment of humanity.

Combined, Lady Gaga and Alicia Keys have approximately 9.8 million followers on Twitter. With such a huge reach, Keep A Child should be able to reach their goal and ten fold. Gaga follower or not, if you are interested in making a donation you can do so here.

Whether critics find the "digital death" idea preposterous or not, the campaign should serve as an interesting case study on the relations between charities and social media fundraising.

Definitely stay tuned.

Cool Tool - Skitch

Screen shots are pretty much my version of Stickie notes --  I use them to keep track of everything from web layouts I like to hair cuts I want my hair dresser to re-create. If you are a visual person and screen shot fanatic like me, you will absolutely love using Skitch.

screen shot made with Skitch!
Its a FREE screen shot app you can download right to your desktop, allowing you to take as many precise cross-hair snapshots you could ever dream of. Plus, with Skitch, you get to skip the annoying step of having to drag your screen shot into PhotoShop or Paint in order to edit it. The tool has its own built in editing tools so you can take notes, circle, and highlight your screen shots immediately. The drag and drop feature makes it easy to embedd or save the snap shots wherever you please (and it automatically saves them in .jpg format--so smart!). 

Skitch is especially awesome if you are working on a group project, as you can also upload your screenshots right to your Profile on the Skitch website. Not only does this back up your images but also makes it super easy to share them with others. 

Unfortunately, Skitch is only available for Macs (sorry Dell lovers) but a PC version is currently in the works. If you are a non-Mac person (shame on you..jk) give Jing a try- I have never used it but have heard good reviews on this similar screen shot tool.

A Steve Jobs Tweet of the Day



@ceoSteveJobs: "Decorating the Christmas Tree with iPod Nanos."



I love keeping track of insightful and inspirational marketing-related quotes, ya know- to keep me motivated and all that jazz......
But I just had to share this one.
Yup...
That's some holiday spirit if I ever heard it....

Hot Spots for Good Restaurants = Google Places With Hotpot


Longer search terms are becoming more prevalent than ever as searchers continue to narrow their focus on what they are looking to find on the internet. In fact, more than 20% of all Google searches are made in conjunction with local keywords. As we have seen, location-based innovations have been all the rage this year with the outstanding popularity of geo-local social networks like Foursquare and SCVNGR. 

Of course, never one to be shown up, Google has introduced its latest contribution to the local, narrow search trend, Hotpots, in conjunction with the search engine's Google Places tool. With Hotpots, you can rate local restaurants from the comfort of your beloved google browser. The design of Hotpots, along with the cute (but potentially confusing) name, allows you to rate restaurants using a star system as well as smiley and frowning faces-- giving the site a social network-like appeal. After you rate a place you are also given the option to leave a tip or review for others (including friends, followers and whoever else you want to add from your other social platforms)-- sound like FourSquare anyone?

The coolest function of Hotpots is that the more you rate your favorite and not so favorite local spots, the almighty Google picks up on what kind of places you love to go and gives you recommendations for new places it thinks you should try. 

Seems like Hotpot is pretty much your Foursquare, Yelp, Citysearch, and Campusfood all in one-- I'd recommend giving it a try.

Taking the Google Analytics IQ Exam

As promised, here are a few tips for those of your preparing to take the Google Analytics IQ exam.

• You have as long as you need to prep for the test.

• I would advise everyone to check out the really helpful videos on Google's Conversion University  and the Analytics Youtube Channel.

• Also on Youtube, Google Analytics in 60 Seconds features 10 videos covering the all basics of google analytics- definitely 10 minutes worth investing.

• The exam costs $50 which can be paid using any major credit card.

• You have 90 minutes to take the exam. A timer will start the moment you begin the first question of the exam, but you are able to pause the timer. I would recommend doing so when you are faced with questions that require extra thinking.

• During the exam, use the check box to note all questions that you are not certain about. You will be able to review these questions before the end of your exam.

• You need a score of 80% or higher to receive your Google Analytics IQ certification.

• A Google Analytics certification is only valid for 18 month after the date when you passed the exam. So yes, every year and a half you are supposed to re-take the exam in order to remain qualified.


Hope these tips help!
Oh, and feel free to shoot me an email or leave a comment if you still have apprehensions about the test- I'll do my best to give you what I know!

What Does Analytics Have to Do With PR?

Not Sure What AdWords Are?
If you're an aspiring communicator you must know this stuff!

As a bit of an SEO fanatic I am often asked by my PR peers about the uses and importance of Search Engine Optimization, Google Analytics and Google AdWords. As a PR major myself, I knew little about this invaluable Internet strategy until I became and intern at a web development company and started to explore the world of Internet Marketing. While this stuff seems to fascinate me more than most of my friends and colleagues, I am always shocked to discover the lack of formal Internet Marketing education that exists in prominent communications programs today ....ehh hemmm BU. But that rant is tottally a post of its own.

This post I would like to dedicate to my fellow aspiring communicators who are still unsure about what all the hubub is surrounding Google AdWords and Analytics. Believe me guys it definitely worth getting familiar with. Check out a paper I wrote on the topic in the White Papers section of my blog to help kick off your learning venture.

Learning about Google Analytics and AdWords will not only add to the impressive skill set you've worked so hard to earn in college, but it will also just make you a more well-rounded communicator. Plus, you can actually earn a formal certification as a Google Analytics and/or Google AdWords expert by taking Google's online certification exams through the Google Conversion University. Best of all, once you pass the test ( you must get an 80% or higher) you can add this important certification to your resume. Now who doesn't want that?!

Have I convinced you yet? If I have, definitely check out my next post on tips for taking the Google Analytics IQ exam.







My First Flash File

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Ok so all you Flash pros out there don't laugh-- I know I still have a long ways to go before becoming a Flash animation master, but I am really excited about my first presentable file! While some of you marketers out there might be like, um...why are you taking Flash classes?? 

I have some news for you.

Whether you are still in college or not, I highly recommend taking a Computer Science course if you are a marketer, SEO specialist, advertiser, or just an aspiring communicator that really wants to understand how the Internet works. 

Of course, the majority of our zest for SEM is based on understanding consumer behavior, sociology, market trends (the list never really ends). But we can't forget the real overall facilitator of all things marketable--computers and more specifically--the Internet. 

The Introduction to Computer Science course I've been taking at BU this year really has made me dig deep into the back end of what really goes on between a click and a conversion. And if you are just starting out in the online marketing world (or are a really out of touch professional) and don't yet understand how the Google Algorithm works yet, a Computer Science course is a great way to start.

Some may think that learning Flash is irrelevant to their everyday business practices, but learning new things never hurt anyone. I'm all about it. Give comp sci a try.



Calling All Shop-A-Holics! Google's Boutiques.com is a Godsend!

I can barely contain my excitementtttttt!!

This morning Google launched its very first personalized online fashion shop. Yes, fellow fashion addicts it is as good as it sounds! Just like its regular search engine Google's Boutiques allows users to search for all the fashion goods they could ever hope to seek online all in one (very nicely designed) place.

And it gets even better. Once you signup with your own Boutiques account, the site allows you to set your very own Boutique Preferences. You choose which style dresses, tops, bottoms, colors, patterns, shoes, designers, styles, trends you love and hate and the search engine will only show you products that meet your specific preferences in your own personal boutique section! AMAZINGG.

Plus, you can also browse celebrity styles, for example this morning I started following (yes just like Twitter) Jamie Lynn Sigler's Boutique. SO cool. And for you style blog fanatics out there Boutiques.com even offers a section where you can follow popular style bloggers as well.

Once you create your own filtered search, Google's algorithm hand picks which items fit your style and suggests other you may like. From there you can decide to "love" or "hate" items (lovess itt) and also save items to your account for later perusing or wish-list making. Perfect timing for the holiday season (god they are good).

And I must give the design team at Google some props. Who knew such a tech powerhouse could craft such a sleek and chic layout as they did for the Boutiques' site. (Dare I even say it has a striking resemblance to the holy grail of fashion sites net-a-porter? OK OK I guess we won't go that far-yet.)

The only downside to Boutiques is how much time it is going to take away from my daily productivity- but hey who knows, maybe this streamlined (word of the week?) shopping tool will actually provide my online shopping addiction with a faster fix!

Happy Shopping!

No Time to Twitter? Try Nanoblogging!

I figured since my last two posts were spent rambling about whether or not there is such a thing as being to synchronized, wired, and concise I thought I would throw in this great parody video about Flutter. If you are a tech nerd like me (and you probably are) it is good for a little laugh. Enjoy!


Facebook's New "Messaging System" Is Supposedly Not a Gmail Killer But It Could Be a Headache



    Image Src:blogs.reuters.com
    Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and engineer Andrew Bosworth unveiled the social network's newly revamped messaging system yesterday which of course, created a huge stir. Zuckerberg emphasized the fact that the so-called "Gmail Killer" was much more than just an email platform.


     Email thats just not email? Huh?

    The new Facebook messaging system will consist of three parts: messaging, conversation history, and a social inbox in which users can choose to communicate in the format of their choice: email, chat, or SMS text. Every Facebook user will receive an @facebook.com email address. The company claims that this new "messaging system" is the future of modern communication and that synchronized messaging formats will make conversations much more seamless.

    Ya, why not. This does sound pretty great. As a Generation Y member myself, I can see myself enjoying the new real-time capabilities of improved chat on Facebook (a revamp which has been needed for a while). But do even I want an @facebook email address? Not really to be honest. Luckily the geniuses at Facebook have already thought of a retort for my quip (shocking). The new messaging system allows members to use any existing email address they have if they opt to not have an @facebook account.

    Still though, as I encroach on the working world, I don't really want all of my job application emails and work-related messages in such close proximity to my Facebook Wall. Not because I have a secret wild side I am trying to hide (though I do have lots of silly and hilarious friends) or that I am not in control of my account's privacy settings (I have it set like Fort Knox), but it just feels wrong to be mixing both worlds so closely. Like claustrophobic almost. Ya synchronized, streamlined, more efficient communication is a wonderful thing that should be innovated-- but there still remains a definitive line (for now at least) between personal and professional "messaging" communication.

    I am looking forward to seeing how this one plays out. Yes, a lot of changes that Facebook has introduced do flop. And an email system with enough accounts for its 500 million (and growing) members could pose to be a potentially dangerous security risk, as many critics have pointed out already. Whether we like it or not, however, the new "messaging system" is sure to spark new innovation in communication formats, and for that, we can thank ol' Zuckerberg once again.

    The 80/20 Rule


    Don't be frightened fellow right-side brains!

    The 80/20 rule is somewhat of a ratio but it doesn't take a math wiz to understand and apply this popular rule of thumb to both your business practices and your daily life. It comes to my mind, however, on nights like this when I find myself under a pile of books and papers curled up in the fetal position squinting glossy-eye at my computer screen.

    The 80/20 rule suggests that 80% of your outcomes (successes,accomplishments, etc) comes from only 20% of your inputs (attention,efforts).  Thus whether its trying to accomplish a range of projects at work or just your own personal to-do list, focus your best efforts on the most important tasks and leave the rest for re-evaluation the next day.

    Sure, easier said than done right?

    And of course sometimes there are days when every task you have seems like the most important one you will ever take on-- believe me, I know. But in the long run, keeping in mind the 80/20 under pressure helps to keep your mind clear and more fit to execute a few big tasks much more effectively.

    The 80/20 Rule is the motto that forces me to stop questioning whatever evil force it was that made a day only 24 hours long, stop checking my inbox, stop refreshing my twitter feed and disconnect. The important things to think about are the great things I did accomplish today (this blog post for one) and tomorrow I will hit refresh on my energy levels. Ya, it's kind of zen for us marketing control freaks but it can do wonders for your productivity (and optimism).

    Night!
    Mobile blogging-- moblogging
    Can't believe I have never tried this out before! Post directly from your phone to your blog by texting a post to Blogger.
    You learn something new everyday :-)

    New Media & Technology Terms Index

    If you want to be an online marketer, marketer, or just someone who understands the Internet, here are some basic but very important terms to know like the back of your hand. More advanced terminology to follow soon!

    AdSense- Google’s online advertising program that delivers contextually relevant advertising on websites and pays on a pay per click or per impression basis.  Many bloggers use AdSense to generate revenue for their blogs.

    Advocacy blog- A blog with a mission. The author’s purpose is to advance a particular point of view and influence public opinion. Advocacy blogs are often used to raise money for a cause either through partnership programs, contextual advertising or direct donations.

    Alexa.com – A website popularity engine owned by Amazon.com, Alexa is best known for allowing a user to view a site’s traffic patterns inbound links and competitors.

    A-List- Jargon used for an influential blogger, generally used as an adjective: “a-list blogger.”

    Bandwith- A term for data transfer rate (DTR) the amount of data that can be carried form one point to another in a given time period.

    Banner ad- A graphic image advertisement used on web pages. When a visitor views the ad on the page its called an impression if the visitor clicks on the banner and is sent to the sponsor’s website the event is known as a click through.

    Blog- Short for Web log online journal intended for public consumption- series of entries posted to a single website page in reverse chronological order.

    Blogswarm- An event in which thousands of bloggers comment on the same story or news event usually with strong opinions.

    Blogger- Someone who writes for or maintains a blog.

    Blogosphere- The online community of bloggers and the content they publish.

    Blogpulse- blog search engine operated by Neilsen Buzz Metrics.

    Category- A feature in bloging that allows a blogger to post topics together by topic categories which can be labeled by tags or elements.

    Citizen journalist- An amateur journalist who usually publishes online by using a blog or community website.

    Click- a click is an action that triggers an event.

    Connection- On LinkedIn, a relationship between two members that allows each to see each others personal information and connections similar to Facebook friends.

    Consumer-Generated Media- also called user generated media- a broad term referring to content posted on blogs/ online content.

    Consumerist- one of the most prominent consumer advocacy sites on the web consumerists gathers and republishes consumer experiences and also provides news and advice.

    Conversation- in social media refers to two-way communication facilitated by blogs and other personal  publishing tools– in marketing, it is the evolution of sales pitch into discussion.

    Del.icio.us- a social bookmarking website that allows members to store categorize, annotate, and share favorite web pages.

    Digg.com- social news site in which users submit and vote on online content the more popular the page the more prominent its position on the site.

    eBook – electronic book can be downloaded and read on a computer or any other device with an Internet connection.

    Feed- push technology used to syndicate web content. Users subscribe to feeds through an aggregation program  which downloads new content.

    Follower- popularized by Twitter- a type of social network relationship in which one member unilaterally chooses to monitor another member’s comments and acitivity according to their privacy settings.

    Friend- in social media terms, a relationship between two members of a social network in which both parties agree to exchange information with each other on an ongoing basis.

    Hosting Site- a website that houses, serves and maintains files for other websites. Blogger and Wordpress are two popular blog hosting sites.

    Hyperlink- an icon, image, or text that brings the reader to another location when clicked.

    Link baiting-catchall terms for practices intended to attract search engine traffic and links from other websites catchy headlines to contests to attract attention.

    Link blog- a blog that primarily contains links to other websites.

    LinkedIN- social network for business professionals that enables members to build relationships through direct and indirect contacts for generating business value.

    Long tail- a frequency distribution pattern in which most occurrences cluster near the y axis and a long distribution curve tapers along the x axis- this type of pattern describes business models of deriving a large percentage of income from sales from low volume products- i.e. targeting niche demographics with specific products rather than mass market with mass products.

    Moblog- blog maintained using a mobile device

    Moveable type- business blogging software for bloggers to track when other blogegrs have linked to their posts by Six Apart ltd.

    News feed- In Facebook, a constantly updated list of activities and messages provided by members of a person’s friend network.

    Open social- created to resolve the problem of duplication across social networks- provides common application programming interfaces that participating networks can employ to share information.

    Page View- a request to load a single HTML page- website traffic is expressed in terms of page views.

    Page Rank- after Google’s Larry Page- a web page’s prominence in Google Search results determined by the Google algorithm- factors include title, keywords, and link prominence.

    Permalink- permanent link assigned to an individual blog post.

    Podcast- digital audio or video programming that can be streamed over the Internet or downloaded to a portable device.

    RSS-  abbreviation for Rich Site Summary or Really Simple Syndication- RSS is a publish and subscribe mechanism that delivers information automatically to a subscriber.

    Server- program that awaits and fulfills requests form a client- a web browser is a client of a web server.

    Social Bookmarking- social network where members store share annotate and comment upon information found on the Internet.

    Social network-an online community in which members discuss topics of common interest- usually have personal profiles and relationships.

    Tag- a keyword label that a use can assign to online content to help categorize.

    Tag Cloud- visual representation of a site’s content as determined by its most important tags. Frequently used tags appear larger than other tags, making it easy for views to determine what topics a post covers.

    Technorati- a popular search engine for blogs.

    Time shifted media- audio or video content that is downloaded and stored locally for playback at the user’s convenience.

    Trackback- allows a blogger to know when someone else has linked to their blog.

    Twitter- a microblog using posts of 140 characters known as tweets.

    Viral marketing- encourages the spread of information by word-of-mouth buzz or guerilla marketing.

    Vlog- video blog

    Web 2.0- O’Reilly Media founder Tim O’Reilly- “The web as platform,” Web 2.0’s definition has evolved to encompass a range of technologies involved in the continuous development of the technologies of the Internet.

    White box social network- provides social networking features for organizations to construct their own networks for marketing, market research and other business purposes.

    Wiki- server program that allows users to collaborate in formatting content of a website- any authorized user can edit a site’s content including other contributions by other users.

    Wikipedia- the Internet’s largest online encyclopedia maintained entirely by anonymous contributors published in over 250 languages.

    Word-of-mouth marketing- encourages customers to promote brands by sharing recommendations with each other.

    Wordpress- open source blog publishing and hosting site distributed under general public license.

    XML- Extensible Markup Languages- flexible way to create common information formats.

    Yelp- a location–based social network in which members share recommendations and reviews of local businesses etc.

    Youtube- video sharing site acquired by Google in 2006.